Product Name: Chloramphenicol
Synonyms: ,[theta-(theta,theta)]-;[R-(R*,R*)]-2,2-dichloro-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]ethanamide;2,2-dichloro-n-(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl)-acetamid;2,2-dichloro-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-,[R-(R*,R*)]-Acetamide;2,2-dichloro-n-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-acetamid;Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-(beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl);Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-, [R-(R*,R*)]-;Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-[beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl]-, D-threo-(-)-
Chloramphenicol Chemical Properties
Melting point 148-150 °C(lit.)
alpha 19.5 º (c=6, EtOH)
refractive index 20 ° (C=5, EtOH)
Fp 14 °C
storage temp. 2-8°C
Water Solubility 2.5 g/L (25 º C)
Chloramphenicol also known as chloromycetin, is produced by chlorine streptothrix which can inhibit bacteria growth effect of the broad-spectrum antibiotics, natural chloramphenicol is left-handed (also known as levomycin). The synthetic product is white or yellow acicular or flake crystal, odorless, bitter taste, slightly soluble in water, soluble in ether and chloroform, methanol, ethanol, acetone or ethyl acetate, insoluble in benzene and petroleum ether. In neutral or weak acidic solution is stable, easy to failure with alkali. The synthetic product is racemic, also called synthomycin. Syntomycin is a mixture of chloramphenicol L-isomer and d-isomer. Because of dextroisomer antibacterial effect, the effect of synthomycin is only half of the natural products. Chloramphenicol has inhibited on Gram negative bacteria, gram positive bacteria. It can be used for treatment of typhoid, dysentery, urethral infection, pertussis, pneumonia, septicemia diseases. But there is damage to the liver, and the dosage should be strictly prescribed dosage. Chloramphenicol palmitate does not dissolve in water, oral is tasteless, also known as chloramphenicol palmitate. Taking the intestine is adipose decompose enzymatic hydrolysis and release of chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol palmitate contains around 60% chloramphenicol, so taking dose should increase two-thirds. Especially that is suitable for children taking. Containing 1% of chloramphenicol ointment can be used for the treatment of eye and skin infections. In agriculture, it mainly used on bacterial diseases of plants, such as rice bacterial blight, and within the ceiling effect is strong, having security for plant.
It is white or yellowish green needle like crystals. The melting point is 150.5-151.5ºC (149.7-150.7ºC). Under the high vacuum it can be sublimated, slightly soluble in water (2.5mg/ml at 25ºC), slightly soluble in propylene glycol (150.8mg/ml), soluble in methanol, ethanol, butanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, insoluble in ether, benzene, petroleum ether, vegetable oil. Taste is very bitter.
1. A broad-spectrum antibiotics,it is the drug of choice for the treatment of typhoid, paratyphoid, one of the effects of drug treatment of anaerobic infections. Second, it is used for the treatment of various microbial infections caused by sensitive diseases. Because serious adverse reactions are less and less.
2. The antimicrobial spectrum, role and purpose were the same as chloramphenicol.
3. Used for the treatment caused by typhoid bacillus, dysentery bacillus, Escherichia coli, bacillus, influenza and pneumococcal infections such as brucellosis.
4. Antibiotic anti infection drug.